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Essentials of Ecology 2/e
판매가격  : 35,000원
적립금  : 1,050점
출판사  : Blackwell
저자  : Townsend
발행일  : 2003년
페이지 수  : 544면
ISBN  : 1405103280
소개하기  :
주문수량  :

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Essentials of Ecology, Second Edition

Chapter 1: Ecology and How to Do It

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Scales, diversity and rigor
1.2.1 Questions of scale
1.2.2 The diversity of ecological evidence
1.2.3 Statistics and scientific rigor
1.3 Ecology in practice
1.3.1 The brown trout in New Zealand - effects on individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems
1.3.2 Successions on old fields in Minnesota - a study in time and space
1.3.3 Hubbard Brook - a long-term commitment of large-scale significance
1.3.4 A model study: Genetically modified crops - bad for biodiversity?
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 2: The Ecology of Evolution

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Evolution by natural selection
2.3 Evolution within species
2.3.1 Geographical variation within species
2.3.2 Variation within a species with man-made selection pressures
2.3.3 Adaptive peaks and specialized abysses
2.4 The ecology of speciation
2.4.1 What do we mean by a "species"?
2.4.2 Islands and speciation
2.5 The effects of climate change on the evolution and distribution of species
2.6 The effects of continental drift on the ecology of evolution
2.7 Interpreting the results of evolution: convergent and parallel evolution
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 3: Physical Conditions and the Availability of Resources

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Environmental conditions
3.2.1 What do we mean by "harsh," "benign," and "extreme"?
3.2.2 Effects of conditions
3.2.3 Conditions as stimuli
3.2.4 The effects of conditions on interactions between organisms
3.2.5 Responses by sedentary organisms
3.2.6 Animal responses to environmental temperature
3.2.7 Microorganisms in extreme environments
3.3 Plant resources
3.3.1 Solar radiation
3.3.2 Water
3.3.3 Mineral nutrients
3.3.4 Carbon dioxide
3.4 Animals and their resources
3.4.1 Nutritional needs and provisions
3.4.2 Defense
3.5 The effect of intraspecific competition for resources
3.6 Conditions, resources, and the ecological niche
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 4: Conditions, Resources and the World's Communities

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Geographical patterns at large and small scales
4.2.1 Large-scale climatic patterns
4.2.2 Small-scale patterns in conditions and resources
4.2.3 Patterns in conditions and resources in aquatic environments
4.3 Temporal patterns in conditions and resources - succession
4.4 The terrestrial biomes
4.4.1 Describing and classifying biomes
4.4.2 Tropical rain forest
4.4.3 Savanna
4.4.4 Temperate grasslands
4.4.5 Desert
4.4.6 Temperate forest
4.4.7 Northern coniferous forest (taiga) grading into tundra
4.5 Aquatic environments
4.5.1 Stream ecology
4.5.2 Lake ecology
4.5.3 The oceans
4.5.4 Coasts
4.5.5 Estuaries
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 5: Birth, Death and Movement

5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 What is an individual?
5.1.2 Counting individuals, births, and deaths
5.2 Life Cycles
5.2.1 Life cycles and reproduction
5.2.2 Annual life cycles
5.2.3 Longer life cycles
5.3 Monitoring birth and death: life tables and fecundity schedules
5.3.1 Annual life tables
5.3.2 Life tables for populations with overlapping generations
5.3.3 A classification of survivorship curves
5.4 Dispersal and migration
5.4.1 Dispersal determining abundance
5.4.2 The role of migration
5.5 The impact of intraspecific competition on populations
5.5.1 Patterns of population growth
5.6 Life history patterns
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 6: Interspecific Competition

6.1 Introduction
6.2 The ecological effects of interspecific competition
6.2.1 Competition between diatoms for silicate
6.2.2 Coexistence and exclusion of competing salmonid fishes
6.2.3 Some general observations
6.2.4 Coexistence and exclusion of competing bumble bees
6.2.5 Coexistence of competing diatoms
6.2.6 Coexistence of competing rodents and ants
6.2.7 The competitive exclusion principle
6.2.8 Environmental heterogeneity
6.3 Evolutionary effects of interspecific competition
6.3.1 Character displacement and release in the Indian mongoose
6.3.2 Canadian sticklebacks
6.4 Interspecific competition and community structure
6.4.1 Limiting resources and the regulation of diversity in phytoplankton communities
6.4.2 Bumble bees in Colorado
6.4.3 Aggregation alters competitive interactions in plant communities
6.4.4 Niche differentiation amongst animals and amongst plants
6.5 How significant is interspecific competition in practice?
6.5.1 The prevalence of current competition
6.5.2 Competition or mere chance?
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 7: Organisms as Habitats

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Hosts as habitats
7.2.1 Life on the surface of another organism
7.2.2 Inhabitants of the body cavity
7.2.3 Inhabitants of host tissues and cells
7.3 Hosts as responsive habitats
7.3.1 Changes in the growth and form of hosts caused by their inhabitants
7.3.2 Changes in host behavior caused by their inhabitants
7.3.3 Immune and other defensive responses of the host
7.4 The distribution and regulation of parasites and mutualists within hosts and their populations
7.5 Life cycles and dispersal
7.6 Coevolution
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 8: Predation, Grazing and Disease

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Prey fitness and abundance
8.3 The subtleties of predation
8.3.1 Interactions with other factors
8.3.2 Compensation and defense by individual prey
8.3.3 From individual prey to prey populations
8.4 Predator behavior - foraging and transmission
8.4.1 Foraging behavior
8.5 The population dynamics of predation
8.5.1 The underlying dynamics of predator-prey interactions: a tendency to cycle
8.5.2 Predator-prey cycles in practice
8.5.3 Disease dynamics and cycles
8.5.4 Crowding
8.5.5 Predators and prey in patches
8.6 Predation and community structure
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 9: Population Processes - The Big Picture

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Multiple determinants of the dynamics of populations
9.2.1 Fluctuation or stability?
9.2.2 Theories of species abundance
9.2.3 Key-factor analysis
9.3 Dispersal, patches, and metapopulation dynamics
9.4 Temporal patterns in community composition
9.4.1 Founder-controlled and dominance-controlled communities
9.4.2 Community succession
9.5 Food webs
9.5.1 Indirect and direct effects
9.5.2 Top-down or bottom-up control of food webs
9.5.3 Community stability and food web structure
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 10: Patterns in Species Richness

10.1 Introduction
10.2 A simple model of species richness
10.3 Spatially varying factors that influence species richness
10.3.1 Productivity and resource richness
10.3.2 Predation intensity
10.3.3 Spatial heterogeneity
10.3.4 Environmental harshness
10.4 Temporally varying factors that influence species richness
10.4.1 Climatic variation
10.4.2 Disturbance
10.4.3 Environmental age: evolutionary time
10.5 Gradients of species richness
10.5.1 Habitat area and remoteness - island biogeography
10.5.2 Latitudinal gradients
10.5.3 Gradients with altitude and depth
10.5.4 Gradients during community succession
10.6 Patterns in taxon richness in the fossil record
10.7 Appraisal of patterns in species richness
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 11: The Flux of Energy and Matter Through Ecosystems

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Primary productivity
11.2.1 Geographic patterns in primary productivity
11.2.2 Factors limiting primary productivity
11.3 The fate of primary productivity
11.3.1 The relationship between primary and secondary productivity
11.3.2 The fundamental importance of energy transfer efficiencies
11.3.3 The relative roles of the "live-consumer" and "decomposer" systems
11.4 The process of decomposition
11.4.1 The decomposers: bacteria and fungi
11.4.2 The detritivores and specialist microbivores
11.4.3 Consumption of plant detritus
11.4.4 Consumption of feces and carrion
11.5 The flux of the matter through ecosystems
11.5.1 Nutrient budgets in terrestrial ecosystems
11.5.2 Nutrient budgets in aquatic communities
11.6 Global biogeochemical cycles
11.6.1 The hydrological cycle
11.6.2 The phosphorus cycle
11.6.3 The nitrogen cycle
11.6.4 The sulfur cycle
11.6.5 The carbon cycle
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 12: Sustainability

12.1 Introduction
12.2 The human population "problem"
12.2.1 Introduction
12.2.2 Population growth up to the present
12.2.3 Predicting the future
12.2.4 Two future inevitabilities
12.2.5 A global carrying capacity
12.3 Harvesting living resources from the wild
12.3.1 Fisheries - maximum sustainable yields
12.3.2 Obtaining MSYs through fixed quotas
12.3.3 Obtaining MSYs through fixed effort
12.3.4 Beyond MSY
12.4 The farming of monocultures
12.4.1 The degradation and erosion of soil
12.4.2 The sustainability of water as a resource
12.5 Pest control
12.5.1 Aims of pest control: economic injury levels and action thresholds
12.5.2 The problems with chemical pesticides - and their virtues
12.5.3 Biological control
12.6 Integrated farming systems
12.7 Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 13: Pollution

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Urban Pollution
13.2.1 Burial and cremation
13.2.2 Feces, urine, and other urban waste
13.3 Agriculture pollution
13.3.1 Intensive livestock management
13.3.2 Nitrate
13.3.3 Pesticides
13.4 Atmospheric pollution
13.4.1 Carbon dioxide - a major atmospheric pollutant
13.4.2 The greenhouse effect
13.4.3 Acid rain
13.4.4 Thinning of the ozone layer
13.5 Nuclear radiation
13.6 Mining and quarrying
13.7 Restoration ecology
Summary
Review Questions

Chapter 14: Conservation

14.1 Introduction
14.2 Threats to species
14.2.1 Overexploitation
14.2.2 Habitat disruption
14.2.3 Introduced species
14.2.4 Possible genetic problems in small populations
14.2.5 A review of risks
14.2.6 The dynamics of small populations
14.3 Threats to communities
14.4 Conservation in practice
14.4.1 Species management plans
14.4.2 Ex situ conservation
14.4.3 Protected areas
14.4.4 Restoration ecology
14.4.5 Finalé - a healthy approach to conservation
Review of Key Concepts
Review Questions

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제품명 Essentials of Ecology 2/e
판매가격 35,000원
제조사 Blackwell
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